Locate lost laptops

Control your own laptop remotely, lock and optionally erase data so it doesnt fall in the wrong hands. Trace its exact location when stolen.

Monitor phone activities of your spouse SMS and voice logs

Use the phone GPS to locate your family members accurately real-time. Monitor all SMS, voice calls, etc.

Better than anti-virus

Lock your system drive and disable any virus infection from USB or CD drive.

How productive are your employees. Watch your kids.

Are your employees stealing your corporate files? Are your kids chatting instead of studying online?

Website design and hosting

Get the most economical and affordable website design, development and hosting. Cloud back-up for your personal and corporate files anywhere you go.

Have your commercial or personal videos, MP3, and documents embedded with copy-protection mechanism disabling piracy via USB or CD/DVD copying. Works in any computer-based application.

Technology now can help you determine if your spouse had recent sex with another

Quick Reference Guide 1 The first published book in Papua New Guinea on Information Technology

Create, invent, innovate, share & educate

Software Science

 

Espionage: can you trust someone?

spy

 

Espionage or spying involves a government or individual obtaining information considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information.[1] Espionage is inherently clandestine, as it is taken for granted that it is unwelcome and, in many cases illegal and punishable by law. It is a subset of intelligence gathering, which otherwise may be conducted from public sources and using perfectly legal and ethical means. It is crucial to distinguish espionage from intelligence gathering, as the latter does not necessarily involve espionage, but often collates open-source information.

Espionage is often part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term is generally associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies primarily for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage.

One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy (or potential enemy) is by infiltrating the enemy’s ranks. This is the job of the spy (espionage agent). Spies can bring back all sorts of information concerning the size and strength of an enemy army. They can also find dissidents within the enemy’s forces and influence them to defect. In times of crisis, spies can also be used to steal technology and to sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence operatives can feed false information to enemy spies, protecting important domestic secrets, and preventing attempts at subversion. Nearly every country has very strict laws concerning espionage, and the penalty for being caught is often severe. However, the benefits that can be gained through espionage are generally great enough that most governments and many large corporations make use of it to varying degrees.

Further information on clandestine HUMINT (human intelligence) information collection techniques is available, including discussions of operational techniques, asset recruiting, and the tradecraft used to collect this information.

History

Events involving espionage are well documented throughout []. The ancient writings of Chinese and Indian military strategists such as Sun-Tzu and Chanakya contain information on deception and subversion. Chanakya’s student Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya Empire in India, made use of assassinations, spies and secret agents, which are described in Chanakya’s Arthashastra. The ancient Egyptians had a thoroughly developed system for the acquisition of intelligence, and the Hebrews used spies as well, as in the story of Rahab. Spies were also prevalent in the Greek and Roman empires.[2] Feudal Japan often used ninja to gather intelligence. More recently, spies played a significant part in Elizabethan England (see Francis Walsingham). Many modern espionage methods were well established even then. Aztecs used Pochtecas, people in charge of commerce, as spies and diplomats, and had diplomatic immunity. Along with the pochteca, before a battle or war, secret agents, quimitchin, were sent to spy amongst enemies usually wearing the local costume and speaking the local language, techniques similar to modern secret agents.[3]

The Cold War involved intense espionage activity between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and China and their allies, particularly related to nuclear weapons secrets. Recently, espionage agencies have targeted the illegal drug trade and those considered terrorists. Since 2008 the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China.[4]

Different intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others. The former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. Both Soviet political (KGB) and military intelligence (GRU)[5] officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.

Targets of espionage

Espionage agents are usually[citation needed] trained experts in a specific targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of intrinsic value to their own organisational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose[citation needed] of the espionage operation.

Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include:a spy

  • Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment (food, energy, materials). Agents are usually found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries[citation needed]
  • Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies (popular, middle class, elites). Agents often recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers
  • Strategic economic strengths (production, research, manufacture, infrastructure). Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, and more rarely from among military technologists
  • Military capability intelligence (offensive, defensive, maneuver, naval, air, space). Agents are trained by special military espionage education facilities, and posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution
  • Counterintelligence operations specifically targeting opponents’ intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, and recruiting defectors or moles

Methods and terminology

The news media may speak of “spy satellites” and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all It is a specific form of human source intelligence (HUMINT). Codebreaking (cryptanalysis or COMINT), aircraft or satellite photography, (IMINT) and research in open publications (OSINT) are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them are espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc., are not espionage.

Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage usually involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information.

The US defines espionage towards itself as “The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation”. Black’s Law Dictionary (1990) defines espionage as: “… gathering, transmitting, or losing … information related to the national defense“. Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U.S.C. §§ 792798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice“.[6] The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain’s espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service.

 

Pages: 1 2 3 4

From Ferdinand Cenon's Portal Website

https://ferdinandcenon.com

ferdinand.cenon@hitechfusion.com